The unprecedented growth of the tuberculosis epidemic in Africa is attributable to several factors, the most important being the HIV epidemic. Although HIV is Africa’s leading cause of death, tuberculosis is the most common coexisting condition in people who die from AIDS (see radiograph).
How is tuberculosis spread in Africa?
The 2013 Abuja Declaration sets the targets of ending TB in Africa by 2030. TB is an airborne Disease. It spread between human through inhaling the air infected with TB germs through cough, sneeze or spit from an infected person.
Why is tuberculosis high in South Africa?
As well as being driven by HIV, the TB burden is also driven by poor living conditions and late presentation to health facilities. The South African government is making major efforts to combat both HIV and TB as set out in its National Strategic Plans (NSPs).
Where is tuberculosis most prevalent in Africa?
The regional numbers have held steady this past year, according to the World Health Organization, but a deeper dive shows that more attention is needed. In Nigeria, my home country and Africa’s largest country by population, nearly three out of every four cases of TB were missed.
Why is tuberculosis more common in developing countries?
TB is more common in countries where many people live in absolute poverty because people are more likely to: live and work in poorly ventilated and overcrowded conditions, which provide ideal conditions for TB bacteria to spread. suffer from malnutrition and disease – particularly HIV – which reduces resistance to TB.
How can we prevent tuberculosis in Africa?
One way to prevent latent TB from developing into active TB is to give HIV-positive people TB drugs to prevent them from developing TB. South Africa has guidelines that say that all HIV-positive people are eligible for TB prevention therapy. This is called Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT).
How is tuberculosis prevented?
Stop the Spread of TB
- Take all of your medicines as they’re prescribed, until your doctor takes you off them.
- Keep all your doctor appointments.
- Always cover your mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. …
- Wash your hands after coughing or sneezing.
- Don’t visit other people and don’t invite them to visit you.
Which countries have high rate of TB?
Countries with high TB rates
- Africa – particularly sub-Saharan Africa (all the African countries south of the Sahara desert) and west Africa.
- south Asia – including India, Pakistan, Indonesia and Bangladesh.
- South America.
Where is TB most prevalent?
TB occurs in every part of the world. In 2020, the largest number of new TB cases occurred in the WHO South-East Asian Region, with 43% of new cases, followed by the WHO African Region, with 25% of new cases and the WHO Western Pacific with 18%. In 2020, 86% of new TB cases occurred in the 30 high TB burden countries.
Is TB endemic in South Africa?
South Africa is one of the 30 high burden tuberculosis (TB) countries that collectively contribute to 87% of the estimated incident cases worldwide, and the country accounts for 3% of cases globally. Adjusting for population size, South Africa is often ranked the highest in terms of incidence rate for TB.
What causes tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick.
Where did TB start from?
TB in humans can be traced back to 9,000 years ago in Atlit Yam, a city now under the Mediterranean Sea, off the coast of Israel. Archeologists found TB in the remains of a mother and child buried together. The earliest written mentions of TB were in India (3,300 years ago) and China (2,300 years ago).
Which 5 countries are least affected by TB?
TB low burden countries
Canada, the United States of America, Australia & New Zealand also have among the lowest rates. In these countries the incident rate is less than 10 cases per 100,000 population per year.
Why is tuberculosis still a global problem?
Tuberculosis is primarily a socioeconomic problem associated with overcrowding, poor hygiene, lack of fresh water and limited access to health care. The lack of a well organized health care infrastructure for case finding and treatment of tuberculosis complicates disease control in these countries.
Is TB a pandemic disease?
Tuberculosis deaths rise for the first time in more than a decade due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has reversed years of global progress in tackling tuberculosis and for the first time in over a decade, TB deaths have increased, according to the World Health Organization’s 2021 Global TB report.
Why is TB so prevalent in countries with high poverty rates?
Economically poor and vulnerable groups are at greater risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis compared with the general population because of overcrowded and substandard living or working conditions, poor nutrition, intercurrent disease (such as HIV/AIDS), and migration from (or to) higher-risk communities …